This is a very simply rundown of diabetes. The diabetes information on the ambulatory care board exam is more complex. Knowing the basics of how to diagnose diabetes, goals, how to change insulin and which drugs not to use in which patients is probably enough for the BCPS.
- Fasting Plasma Glucose: 100-125 mg/dl
- 2-hour plasma glucose test: 140-199 mg/dl
- A1C = 5.7-6.4%
- Fasting plasma glucose >=126 mg/dl
- Casual plasma glucose >= 200 mg/dl
- 2-hour post load glucose >= 200 mg/dl
- A1C >= 6.5%
- *Must have 2 positive tests before diagnosis.
- C-peptide can be a sign of type 2 diabetes.
- A1C < 7.0 (some sources say 6.5). If at goal, measure every 6 months, if not measure every 3
- FPG or pre-meal = 80-130 mg/dl
- Post-prandial (1-2 hours after meal): <180 mg/dl
- Acute complications: Hypoglycemia, DKA, hyperglycemia, hyperosmolar non-ketonic syndrome
- Long-term complications:
- microvascular: retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy
- macrovascular: cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease
- Fasting plasma glucose of 92 or greater or 1-hour OGTT >180, 2-hr >153
- Goals are different: FPG <95, 1-h PP <140, 2 h-pp <120
Insulin Therapy Management:
- Estimate total daily insulin requirement (0.3 to 0.6 unit/kg/day). May need less at start of therapy (honeymoon phase)
- Old school: give 2/3 dose before morning meal (2/3 as NPH, 1/3 as regular) and 1/3 before evening meal (2/3 as NPH, 1/3 as regular)
- Newer method: Give 50% as basal insulin (determir, glargine or degludec) and 50% as fast acting (aspart, lispro, glulisine) three times a day before meals.
- Metformin is drug of choice. Reduces A1C by 1-2 %. Do not give if CHF or increased CR (lactic acidosis is possible).
- Sulfonylureas: Can cause hypoglycemia. Reduce A1C by 1-2% (glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride).
- Meglitinides: They are basically rapid acting sulfonylureas. Can also cause hypoglycemia. Reduce A1C by 0.5-1.5% (repaglinide or nateglinide)
- Thiazolidinediones: contraindicated in hepatic impairment and class III/IV heart failure. Reduces A1C by 0.5-1.4% Also reduces HDL (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone.
- DPP-4 Inhibitors: Reduce A1C by 0.5-0.8%. No hypoglycemia. Can cause respiratory infections, UTI, joint pain, headache, angioedema, Stevens-Johnson, pancreatitis (sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, alogliptin).
- SGLT-2 Inhibitors: Reduce A1C by 0.3-1.0%. Can cause UTI, hypotension (canagliflozin, dapaliflozin, empagliflozin).